Autumn plum care activities important for the fruit tree to safely survive the most difficult period - winter. This is a kind of summing up and the beginning of preparation for a new growing season.
Depends on autumn workshow buds will be laid, fruit set and the level of susceptibility of trees to viral and fungal diseases.
How and why to care for plums in late August and autumn
Gardener's main goal in the fall - help the fruit tree to relive the phase of relative peace without pain. Despite the fact that in the autumn period, the growth of the above-ground part of the plum stops, the active development of the root system continues.
In the structures of the tree complex physiological processes take place to prepare for the winter period. The main accumulation of active substances occurs in the period after the completion of the growth of shoots before leaf fall.
The lignification of the shoots depends on the volume of these stocks, which means resistance to low temperatures. therefore water recharge irrigation is very important, it is necessary to feed the plum in autumn.
To prevent the growth of colonies of pests at your cottage wood is treated with insecticidal agents. No less important for the health of plums - fungicide treatment, it will prevent the development of fungal diseases in the spring.
Under the influence of cold flexibility of plum branches is lost. This leads to their breakage under the load of winter precipitation or exposure to squally wind. Preventive pruning will help minimize injury to the fruit tree.
Survive the winter cold and temperature drops will help proper wood insulation for winter. In addition, plum needs protection from rodents, which are always activated in the winter in search of available food.
How to care for trees and bushes in the fall:
Autumn care activities
Pruned pruned do after harvest until mid-September. With such terms, the fruit tree will have time to recover before the first frosts, to tighten all wounds and sawn.
- first of all, they pay attention to overgrown young shoots, they are shortened, leaving 1/3 part;
- all dry and painful branches are cut off completely;
- last year and old branches are cut by 1/3.
Trimming is carried out with a well-sharpened shears. Cuts with a diameter of more than 1.5 cm handled with a thin layer of garden vara.
This event will prevent plum from breaking the trunks under the influence of snow load and squally winds.
Autumn watering is important for plum to go through a period of hardening. Irrigate the plum in the third decade of September. At the same time, the irrigation rate increases threefold; each tree has from 18 to 24 buckets of water.
You need to closely monitor the weather forecast, if they promise heavy rainfall, then you should refrain from watering.
With strong humidity and the establishment of warm weather, growth of shoots and an increase in green mass can occur. therefore in the rainy season you need to do side gutters or cover the trunk circle with a thick film.
Good preparation for the winter
Microcracks, delaminated areas of the bark and moss - a real haven for spores of fungi and mold. Often there are hatching larvae of the pests, and adults lay wintering eggs.
Therefore, before frosts, it is important to carry out preventive cleaning of the trunk. Clean the bark with a metal brush, scraping from the trunk and branches of the exfoliated areas, moss and lichen.
This event is better to combine with the treatment against pests., on the trunk of a tree, the passages they gnaw are often found, inside which they can hide. They need to be processed immediately.Preventive cleaning of the trunk is better to combine with treatment against pests.
Next, proceed to whitewash the trunk.. For this solution is prepared:
- lime 1 kg;
- clay 1 kg;
- mullein 0.5 kg;
- copper sulphate 300 g
Such a solution will help solve many problems.. The smell of mullein scares off rodents, clay and lime will reduce the effects of temperature drops. Copper sulfate is a preventive measure against klastoporiaz that develops well in the fall and during the winter thaw.
In the middle lane you can wrap the shtamb breathable material and additionally cover with spruce leaves. Pristvolny circle of plums mulch with a high layer of peat, sawdust or straw.
Time to feed and fertilize
The active growing season greatly depletes the internal resources of the tree. therefore autumn plum has a special shortage of mineralsthat will affect the hardiness of the tree. Fertilize and feed the fruit tree should be immediately after harvest.
In the fall, all minerals are needed, except nitrogen. - root growth stimulator. This mineral is also found in large quantities in organic fertilizers: pig manure and chicken manure.
When making organic use rotted cattle manure. It contains a high concentration of potassium, which contributes to the rapid accumulation of carbohydrates.For fertilizing in the fall, plums need all minerals except nitrogen, as well as manure and phosphorus.
Manure is applied to the trunk circle at the rate of 5 kg per 1 m2. Wood can also be provided with potassium using a solution of potassium chloride and water (150 g / 10 l).
High-quality and high fruiting plum depends on phosphorus reserves in the internal resources of the tree. Natural sources of replenishment of this mineral is not, and therefore the level of its content in the tree is completely dependent on the gardener.
For feeding, a solution of superphosphate and water (300 g / 10 l) is added to the near-stem circle.
It is also important not to forget about calcium.. This mineral regulates the acidity of the soil and promotes the assimilation of spare nutrients by the tree, which is very important when forming young shoots.
To do this, you need to make a solution of sulfate, nitrate, calcium chloride in 25 g and 10 liters of water. The use of calcium nitrate is not recommended, it contains 15% nitrogen.
Feed and pest control:
How to deal with pests in the country
Only those orchards where the number of pests are constantly monitored can be considered a safe and healthy site.
It is important to understand it is impossible to completely isolate the area from insects, and in a minimum amount they can not cause significant harm.
Articles that may be of interest to you:
- Effective control of aphids on plum and other fruit trees.
- The most common diseases of plums and their treatment.
- Why does plum not bloom and fruit and what to do with it?
Plum often hit:
- shoots moth;
- plum moth;
- ringed silkworm.
All these pests lay wintering eggs.and in some species, adults overwinter in bark cracks, layers of mulch or soil.
For complete pest control, you need a lifelong tree. carry out killing and preventive treatments.
Spraying insecticides in different seasons are done with a specific purpose and complement each other.
Autumn events for future harvest
Fully digging near-stem circle, collected and burned fallen leaves. If you look closely at cracks or in layers of foliage, you can find eggs laying. They are destroyed by hand.
If there are no large numbers of insects on the plum, processing is carried out by folk remedies:
- infusion of garlic, aged 1 day (200 g / 10 l);
- a solution of water and onion peels (300 g / 10 l), aged for 5 days;
- ash-soap solution (400 g / 50 G / 10 l).
Additionally, you need to hold fumigation with tobacco smoke. To do this, near the fruit tree have a small pile of straw, scattered tobacco on the surface and set on fire. The procedure lasts 2 hours.
If the defeat is massivewithout the use of chemicals can not do. For this purpose, the following preparations are used: Karbofos, Aktellik, Fufanon.Processing plums from pests in the fall can be carried out folk remedies, as well as chemicals
The selected drug should be used in the standards strictly specified in the instructions.
Another important event in the fall - plum treatment with fungicides. Fungal spores begin active development with the first warming and quickly spread throughout the site. To prevent an epidemic is possible only with the constant suppression of microorganisms and bacteria.
For this plum and okolostvolny circle sprayed Bordeaux liquid. Consumption for one tree up to 6 years - up to 2 liters, for more mature trees up to 10 liters.
After the soil warms up to + 15 ° С, new individuals begin to appear from eggs laid by pests in the fall, which feed on young shoots. This leads to a strong slowdown in the development of plums and the rapid spread of pests throughout the site.
therefore the first treatment needs to be done before bud breakaround mid March.
Subsequent treatments are carried out if pests are observed on the sink. Focusing on reproduction volumes, use folk remedies or chemicals.
Processing by any means stop 30 days before fruiting and do not spend the same period of time after.
How and when to plant plum
High-quality vaccination is full compatibility of wood species. and the procedure performed in accordance with the processes occurring in the tree structure.
The normal accretion of the stock and the scion does not guarantee the quality development and high productivity of the fruit tree. therefore it is important to determine the compatibility of the grafted cultures and possible deviations during development.
Choice of stock
The stock is the base of the fruit tree. Through its structure, the tree will receive the main nutrients.
The stock influences absolutely all life processes, resistance to frost and drought, the structure of the tree itself and the quality of the fruit. Therefore, his choice is treated with special attention.Plum stock can be cherry plum, sloe and tornosl, Canadian and Ussuri plum
Stocks for plum:
- Cherry plum. One of the main stocks for the southern regions. Differs fast adaptation to all types of soil and the good development of the fruit tree.
- Dwarf. A good stock for use in central Russia. The main advantages of winter resistance and drought resistance.
- Turn. Frost-resistant and hardy stock. Used as an additional stock in the middle zone of gardening and in the northern regions.
- Ussurian plum. Differs in high frost resistance. Most often used in the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. In temperate climates, it is possible for the bark to preserve, therefore it is practically not used in the middle zone.
- Canadian plum. From this stock grow winter-hardy, fruitful and skoroplodny trees. Mass applied in the Altai Territory, the Urals and Siberia.
- Seedlings of cultivated varieties. Rootstocks of seedlings are mainly used in the middle zone of gardening. To do this, select zoned varieties.
Procurement of cuttings
Grafts for vaccination harvested only after the complete cessation of sap flow. This happens when trees shed their leaves and enter a dormant period.
This is caused by the movement of plastic substances with annual increments down under the influence of daily warming up of temperature. Such cuttings cannot build up the callus necessary for fusion with the stock.
For graft cut strong annual shoots not less than 5 mm in diameter and 40 cm in length with healthy apical growth and lateral leaf buds.
It is not difficult to define them - this is the final branch before the first branch. Shoots sprouting up from the tops steeply upward are not suitable for vaccination.
Store cuttings in wet substrate from sawdust or sand at a temperature of + 1 ° С- + 5 ° С. The substrate must be moistened periodically.
There are many ways to vaccine fruit tree. Each of them has its own characteristics and is used depending on the characteristics of the material being grafted and the season of the procedure.
If there is no experience with vaccinations, it is better to start with the most simple and understandable wayswhich almost always give good results.
Graft plum, master class:
This is a very simple method of vaccination. and is used with the same diameter (not more than 1.5 cm) stock and scion. The same oblique and smooth sections, 3-4 cm long, are made on the stock and on the stock.
Graft and rootstock are connected to each other so that the cambial layers coincide. The junction of the sections tightly tied with a film. The upper cut of the stalk is treated with garden pitch.Grafting a plum by copulating is the easiest way, even for inexperienced gardeners.
Behind the bark
This vaccination method is applied when new varieties need to be grafted into an adult or old plum. The procedure is carried out after the start of sap flow. At this time, the bark becomes plastic and easily lags behind the wood.
Stages of the procedure:
- the stock is cut with a saw into a stump and treated with garden pitch;
- bark notch down to a length of 2.5 cm;
- the cut bark is slightly turned on both sides;
- at the lower end of the cutting a slanting cut is made at 3 cm at an angle of 30 °;
- 2-3 kidneys are left on the handle, the rest is cut off (above the kidney);
- the cutting is inserted behind the bark;
- The vaccination site is fixed with a film and coated with garden pitch.
A fruit garden will develop harmoniously only with a full understanding of the characteristics of all plants and compliance with the rules of caring for them.
It is important not to disrupt the natural processes of the fruit tree. - this often leads to global problems. Only in this way can longevity and stable fruiting of the plum be achieved.