Hungarian plum is a varietal group that differs from others by its excellent taste, high yield and long shelf life. The peculiarity of the Hungarian is that only prunes can be made from its fruits. Other types of plums are not suitable for this.
Variety Group Description
There is no exact data on the origin of the plum. It is believed that it appeared in the form of a hybrid as a result of over-pollination of cherry plum and turn on the Caucasus. According to other sources, her homeland is Asia. It is not known who brought the variety of plum to the Hungarian, but it received its name due to the fact that it was brought to Russia from Hungary, in 1900.
Originally it was grown on the Black Sea coast. It was Hungarian Italian. Thermophilous variety, not resistant to frost, loves high humidity of air and soil. But he has the most delicious and sweet fruit.
Over time, many varieties were bred that were adapted to frost and drought, but which did not lose quality and retained the ability to make prunes from them. Now grown everywhere - from the shores of the Black Sea to the Leningrad region. For each region has its own, zoned grade.
Characteristics of the plunger of the group ukorka
- the trees are mostly sredneroslye, height of 3 - 4.5 meters. Crohn pointed up or oval. Reddish-brown shoots, often located;
- self-fertile, but there are partially self-fertile varieties;
- high yield;
- first time fructifies in 6 - 8 years after disembarkation to a permanent place. There are modern hybrids, the first harvest from which can be removed after 3 or 4 years;
- the ripening period of the fruit depends on the variety: the middle-ripened crop is harvested in late August, from late varieties - until the end of September.
- drought resistant;
- the life of a tree is 25-30 years.
- fruits are large, up to 6 cm in length, 4–5 cm in diameter. They have the shape of an elongated ellipse, or egg-shaped;
- asymmetrical plums, one part convex, the other flattened and smaller;
- pronounced side seam;
- dark-colored fruits are blue, purple and violet.
- covered with wax bloom of gray or smoky hue;
- the stone is easily separated, the fetus itself is effortlessly divided into two parts;
- the flesh is elastic, dense. Color depends on the variety;
- sugar content 13 - 15%;
- caloric content 42 kcal per 100 gr.
Common varieties of Hungarian
The main differences of varieties in winter hardiness, the ability to self-pollination, the size of the fruit and their taste.
The height of the tree is 4 meters, the crown is round, spreading, up to 6 meters in diameter. Fruits in 4 years, yield from 50 to 70 kg per tree, depending on weather conditions.
Self-fertile, but when over-pollinated with Algerian or domestic Hungarian, the crop rises. The variety is mid-season; fruits are ready for harvest at the end of August.
Hungarian Italian does not tolerate frost, yields are lowered in cool summer. In a dry summer without watering, the ovaries fall off. It is grown in the southern regions, in the Central Black Earth regions is possible, but freezes in winter. It takes time to recover.
This variety has the largest and sweetest fruit. More other varieties suitable for cooking prunes.Plum Hungarian Italian
Height 3 meters, crown paniculata with raised branches. Fruits in 5 years, yield about 30 kg.
Without cross-pollination does not set fruit. For pollinators suitable varieties: Michurinskaya, Zyuzinskaya, Peach, green carpet Reform and others. The fruits ripen in September.
Frost resistance is average. Suitable for Central Black Earth areas, but in frosty winters there is a chance of freezing. Recovers quickly.Plum Hungarian Voronezh
Height 3 - 4 meters. The branches grow at a sharp angle. This leads to the fact that in winter, under the weight of sleet or frost, the branches break off. Severe damage to the bark can lead to the death of the tree. The same happens at a bountiful harvest, from the severity of the fruit. This can be foreseen and pre-set supports under the branches.
The variety is mid-season, valued because of juicy fruits with a delicate flavor. Plums may not fall to 1 month, and those that are not ripe, ripen at room temperature.
Winter hardiness is weak, it is recommended for cultivation in the southern regions or in the south of the Central Black Soil Region.Plum Hungarian Michurinskaya
Height 3.5 meters, crown rounded, sparse, branchy spreading. Fruits in 3 years, yield up to 30 kg.
Partially self-fertility. Without over-pollination, yield is reduced. Fruits can be picked in the second half of August.Winter-hardy, suitable for regions with cold winters. Resistant to asthenopiasis.Plum Hungarian Belorusskaya
Height not higher than 3 meters. Crohn dense, rounded, with drooping branches. Fruits in 6 - 8 years after planting. Productivity of 20 - 35 kg.
Samoplodna, harvest time - the beginning of September. Hardy, suitable for growing in central Russia. When frosting is quickly restored.Plums sour, suitable for blanks.Plum Hungarian Moskovskaya
Height 3 - 4 meters, spreading crown, rare branches. Fruits in 3 years. Productivity 25 kg.
Partially self-fertile. In order to increase yields, it is necessary to pollination. For this purpose, early ripening or winter red. Maturation later, uneven. Fruits are harvested throughout September.
In rainy weather, the peel on the fruit cracks.Winter-hardy variety, bred for cultivation in the Leningrad region.Pulkovo Hungarian
Height 4 meters. Crohn pyramidal or sprawling. Fruits in 3 - 4 years. Productivity 25 - 30 kg.
Samoplodna. The fruits are ready to be collected at the end of August. Hardy, drought-resistant. In cold winters, the wood is protected from freezing by thick bark. Part of the fruit buds with sudden temperature drops freezes.
Branches are weak, grow at an acute angle. So that they do not break from the severity of the fruit, it is necessary to put supports at the end of July.Plum Hungarian Korneevskaya
In the above varieties, the shape of the fruit is obovate. They differ in weight, color and taste.
|Grade name||Mass (gr)||Fruit color||Pulp||Taste|
|Italian||35||dark, uneven transition from blue to violet, brown outflow||bright orange, fleshy||sweet|
|Voronezh||30-35||blue - brown||elastic greenish||sweet sour|
|Michurinskaya||25-30||blue - purple||dense, juicy, green with yellowness||gentle|
|Belorussian||40||uniform blue||elastic orange||sweet and sour|
|Moscow||20||the transition of red, blue and purple||rough, amber color||slightly sugary sourish|
|Pulkovskaya||20-25||blue, sometimes red-brown spots||light honey color||not pronounced|
|Korneevskaya||35||blue with brown shimmer||fleshy, honey color||sweet|
Planting rules seedlings
When planting seedlings - depends on the climate. In the southern regions it is better to plant in late September. Long, cool autumn contributes to a better survival rate. In the middle lane and to the north, the best time to disembark is April, before bud break. If you plant in the fall, the Hungarian cold will not take root.
If the place is in a lowland, it is flooded during floods and rains, it is not suitable for laying a plum orchard. Groundwater should not be higher than 1.5 meters from the soil surface.
Planting pits are prepared for 10 days. Their size is 60x60 cm, the depth is the same. Prepare nutrient soil: the earth is mixed in half with humus, add 300 g of superphosphate, 50 g of potassium salt and wood ash, 400 g. If planting is carried out in the spring, you need to add nitrogen, which is necessary for the growth of foliage and the formation of shoots. In the autumn it is not added.
Before planting, a strong pole is driven into the bottom of the pit, which will support the young tree for the first two years. The root neck at planting should be 4 cm above the ground. The distance between the landing pits should be about 4 meters.
Until the rooting is complete, the ground in the wheel circle is kept wet. Frequent watering can be avoided by putting a layer of mulch into the hole.Blue plum fruits ready for harvest
How to care for Hungarian?
When caring for a plum orchard hold the following activities:
- regular watering. Even drought-resistant varieties respond to irrigation by increasing yield. Watering is important during flowering and during the period when the fruits increase the mass;
- top dressing. In the spring, before flowering, make organic, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. In the fall, after harvesting, the fertilizers are the same, except nitrogen;
- permanent removal of shoots;
- weeding and loosening. If the trunk circle is muted, then it is not necessary;
- installation of supports under the brancheson which a lot of fruit;
- annual regulatory pruning, during which young shoots are removed, thickening the crown, weak, intertwining;
Reproduction of the Hungarian plum
Hungarian breed in several ways:
- seeds (underwire). Bones before landing in the ground should be stratified in a refrigerator from September to March. In March, thrust into the ground in the fall on the school. A year later, the seedling is ready for planting at a permanent place;
- vegetatively. For vegetative propagation, cuttings and shoots are suitable. Rooting overgrown with a small spine - the most effective way. Planted immediately to a permanent place.
- Experienced gardeners propagate plum inoculation but it is a more time consuming process.
Diseases and pests
Hungarian plum is more resistant to pests and diseases than other species.
Under adverse conditions: thickening of the crown and excessive dampness, plum can get sick with monociosis, rust, or coccomycosis. These are fungal diseases that are treated with copper-containing drugs. Well proven 1% Bordeaux mixture.
In addition to spraying, it is necessary to remove all vegetative garbage from the near-circle circle., remove diseased leaves and damaged shoots. They are carried outside the site and burned.
For prophylaxis, every spring, before bud breaks, trees are treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture.
Plums are loved by such pests as the codling moth, slimy sawfly, sprout moth, hawthorn and others. I treat with insecticides. It is important to respect the harvest. It is recommended to carry out double processing in 10–14 days, but on condition that the crop can be harvested only 30 days after processing.
Prevention of pests is treated with karbofos two times: in the period of blooming buds and immediately after flowering. In the autumn, you need to remove old dried branches, clean the bark, and remove leaf litter where the pest larvae can hide.
- Gennady: When I was on vacation in the Krasnodar region, I got into a plum orchard. A large plantation was planted by Italian Hungarian. I have never eaten such delicious plums! I brought a sapling home, and I live in the Kursk region. The first two years of the winter were warm, and I protected the tree too - it was wrapped with lutrasil. He settled down and grew noticeably. And the third winter was frosty, there was little snow. And what was my disappointment when in the spring my tree did not dissolve a single bud! It is frozen! Now I stick to the rule: "Where he was born, there it was useful." He planted Hungarian Voronezh in his garden. This year she will be 4 years old. From year to year waiting for the harvest.
- Kristina: I have a cottage in the Moscow region. Moscow Hungarian pleases us for many years. Fruits are more sour than sweet, they taste only to my granddaughter. But compotes, jams and jams - all together. And this year I want to try prunes to do. Previously, I did not know that this was possible, but I tried it with a neighbor, and I liked it.
- Ulyana: Our climate in the Leningrad Region is capricious. In other years, little is expected. But the plum orchard always pleases - every year it bears fruit, but since! The variety of our plums is called Hungarian Pulkovo. Bred specifically for cold climates. We collect all of September, grab and eat, and make blanks.